Wavelength Awareness

Generally speaking, humans visualize electromagnetic energy spectra between 400nm to 800nm, commonly referred to as visible or white light.  Energy having a wavelength longer than 800nm is referred to as near infrared (IR), and can barely be detected by the human eye, making IR an ideal covert illuminator for night vision. IR energy is also effective at penetrating skin tissues, enabling phototherapy and faster wound healing.  Spectra shorter than 400nm is referred to as ultra-violet (UV), with UV-C being the most interesting spectra in 2020 as believed effective against COVID-19.  The below project summaries provide content to our offered products, project paths, and the direction headed.

The APEX is intended as the ultimate “Hail” and “Warn” spot and signal system having a collimated white beam capable of throwing 1000 yards. The APEX development centered on making a hazardous class III laser into a non-hazardous class 1 device.  APEX has been 3rd party lab tested, and is certified as a FDA class 1 white laser device.  This project started in 2019, testing completed in 2020, with first production now offered for sale.  Soon we hope to offer a hand-held version for EDC.

 

St. Torch is a 5,600 lumen white spotlight that is being developed into a multi-wavelength irradiator system. Different light heads having specific wavelengths, mounting, and beam throws are being evaluated for tactical advantage, forensic investigation, and rescue operations.  St. Torch’s 14.3v quick change battery pack provides ample power to operate high power devices for many hours.  In the near future blue, red, and IR lights heads will be available as a large scene system.

The COVID death ray project is moving into efficacy testing at a microbiology lab in Canada.  An experimental 265nm UVC LED module is being tested against MS2 (like Corona Virus) and MRSA (bacteria).  The efficacy tests will be published here on December 31, 2020.

Ultraviolet Light Fights New Virus

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319933/

…UVA and UVB light rays have limited germ-killing ability because viruses and bacteria have had millions of years to adapt to them.

But UVC light (200–280 nm) is completely absorbed by our atmosphere and never reaches the surface of the earth [6]. Therefore, UVC light is just as novel to SARS-CoV-2 as the virus is to humans. According to the International Ultraviolet Association, it is generally accepted that a dose of 40 mJ·cm−2 of 254 nm light will kill at least 99.99% of “any pathogenic microorganism” [6], [7]...

Engineering (Beijing). 2020 Aug; 6(8): 851–853.

Published online 2020 Jun 27. doi: 10.1016/j.eng.2020.06.009

PMCID: PMC7319933

PMID: 32837746

Dana Mackenzie

​​Ultraviolet C irradiation: an alternative antimicrobial approach to localized infections?

Tianhong Dai,1,2 Mark S Vrahas,3 Clinton K Murray,4 and Michael R Hamblin1,2,5,*

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292282/

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2012 Dec 1.

Published in final edited form as:

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2012 Feb; 10(2): 185–195.

doi: 10.1586/eri.11.166

PMCID: PMC3292282

NIHMSID: NIHMS357126

PMID: 22339192

 

In addition to the eradication of microorganisms that can impede wound healing, it is hypothesized that judicious UV exposure might be beneficial for wound healing and restoration of skin homeostasis. The effects of UVC on wound healing include hyperplasia and enhanced re-epithelialization or de-squamation of the leading edge of periulcer epidermal cells, granulation tissue formation and sloughing of necrotic tissue [21]. In addition, UV exposure of wounds might stimulate and restore normal melanocyte number and distribution in re-epithelialized wounds while preventing hypopigmentation [22]. Furthermore, exposure of re-epithelialized wounds to UV irradiation might exert a photo protective effect in the skin by the production of melanin by melanocytes [22]. It is therefore proposed that moderate UV exposure should be commenced early in the healing process of cutaneous wounds [21,22]. Physical therapists have used UVC irradiation as a therapeutic modality for wound healing for many years; however, the physician community has been slow to adopt this technology [23].

In vitro studies

An in vitro study was reported by Morykwas and Mark on the effects of UVC irradiation at 254 nm on dermal fibroblasts [24]. Fifteen newborn foreskin fibroblast cultures were treated with UVC light. The investigators observed that, in comparison to nonirradiated fibroblast cultures, those fibroblasts irradiated with UVC had a decreased amount of fibronectin bound to cell surfaces (mean: 14%) and an increased amount of fibronectin released into the medium (mean: 42%). In addition, collagen lattices constructed with irradiated fibroblasts contracted significantly faster at 7 days. The authors suggested that fibronectin release led to increased healing via wound contraction.

 

Blue Light Eliminates Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Infected Mouse Skin Abrasions

Photomed Laser Surg. 2013 Nov; 31(11): 531–538.

Photomed Laser Surg. 2013 Nov; 31(11): 531–538.

doi: 10.1089/pho.2012.3365

PMCID: PMC3818001

PMID: 23406384

Tianhong Dai, PhD,1,2 Asheesh Gupta, PhD,1,2,3 Ying-Ying Huang, MD,1,2 Margaret E. Sherwood, MEd,1 Clinton K. Murray, MD, FACP, FIDSA,4 Mark S. Vrahas, MD,5 Tammy Kielian, PhD,6 and Michael R. Hamblin, MD

 

…. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of blue light (415±10 nm) therapy for eliminating CA-MRSA infections in skin abrasions of mice. ….Bioluminescence imaging was used to monitor in real time the extent of infection in mice. Results: ….Transmission electron microscopy imaging of USA300LAC cells exposed to blue light exhibited disruption of the cytoplasmic content, disruption of cell walls, and cell debris. In vivo studies showed that blue light rapidly reduced the bacterial burden in both acute and established CA-MRSA infections.

Low-Level Laser (Light) Therapy (LLLT) in skin: stimulating, healing, restoring

See https://www.researchgate.net/publication/256835631_Low-Level_Laser_Light_Therapy_LLLT_in_skin_stimulating_healing_restoring

Shedding light on the restart

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7403859/

Franco Fusi⁎ and Giovanni Romano

Phys Med. 2020 Sep; 77: 18–20.

Published online 2020 Aug 5. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmp.2020.07.018

PMCID: PMC7403859

PMID: 32768916

…Interestingly enough, the atmosphere cuts out practically all UVC and part of UVB solar radiation, which are known to be the most effective antimicrobial wavelengths [4], [16] excluding the use of external photosensitizing molecules [18], making studies on the sterilizing efficacy and applicability of these radiations even more intriguing. Even if it is obvious that the chemo-physical and biological principles of UV-photokilling efficacy stand independently on the physical location of microbes (i.e. in the environment or in our body), still the most easily achievable and accessible applications of UV as an antimicrobial agent are probably in environmental disinfection. In this field, the use of UV in the presence of people has always been curbed by the pathogenic effects that exposure to these wavelengths could have on the skin and cornea [19], [20].

The efficacy and safety of phototherapy in geriatric patients: a retrospective study*

 

The efficacy and safety of phototherapy in geriatric patients: a retrospective study*

An Bras Dermatol. 2018 Jan-Feb; 93(1): 33–38.

doi: 10.1590/abd1806-4841.20185468

PMCID: PMC5871359

PMID: 29641694

Isil Bulur,1 Hilal Kaya Erdogan,1 Ayse Esra Aksu,2 Tekden Karapınar,1 and Zeynep Nurhan Saracoglu1

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5871359/

…phototherapy was administered to 28 (29.5%) patients for mycosis fungoides, 25 (26.3%) patients foplaque type psoriasis, 12 (12.6%) patients for palmoplantar psoriasis, 12 (12.6%) patients for generalized pruritus, and 18 (19%) for other dermatoses. Of the patients, 64.2% had received a narrowband UVB (NB-UVB), 21.1% oral psoralen UVA (PUVA), and 14.7% local PUVA treatment. A complete response was achieved in 76.9-85.7% of the mycosis fungoides and in 73.71-100% of the psoriasis vulgaris patients treated with NB-UVB and PUVA, respectively. All the patients with generalized pruritus were treated with NB-UVB, and 80% of these patients achieved significant improvement. The erythema rate was found to be 0.43% per session for NB-UVB treatment and 0.46% per session for PUVA treatment as a side effect.

Blue Light Disinfection in Hospital Infection Control: Advantages, Drawbacks, and Pitfalls

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6627448/

Antibiotics (Basel). 2019 Jun; 8(2): 58.

Published online 2019 May 7. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics8020058

PMCID: PMC6627448

PMID: 31067733

João Cabral1,* and Rodrigues AG1,2

….High doses of light can be used to destroy microorganisms effectively on surfaces. Moreover, higher concentrations of PS can be applied, which can be supported in membranes/films. This allows its recovery and recycling, which makes this approach durable, sustainable, economic, and environmentally-friendly. In fact, recently, a lot of developments were performed to renew the way that aPDT and its PS can be used. New methods have been tested to allow the immobilization of PS in diverse supports, which permits its use in the disinfection of materials and surfaces [87,88].

 

​Photodynamic Therapy in the Inactivation of Microorganisms

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235899/

 

Antibiotics (Basel). 2020 Apr; 9(4): 138.

Published online 2020 Mar 25. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics9040138

PMCID: PMC7235899

PMID: 32218130

Adelaide Almeida

 

The growing emergence of microbial resistance to conventional antimicrobials, due their dissemination in the environment, and excessive or inadequate prescriptions, associated with the globalization of pathogenic microorganisms’ transmission, make the discovery of new effective therapies to combat infection of extreme urgency. It was estimated that, if nothing will be done in the meantime, the cost of microbial resistance in terms of global production lost between 2015 and 2050 would be 100 trillion USD, and by 2050 microbial resistance will kill 10 million people per year, outweighing the death caused by cancer [1].

As the development of new conventional antimicrobials is unlikely to solve the problem of microbial resistance, it is a matter of time until microorganisms develop resistance to the new drugs [2]. So, the new alternative strategies must have a different mechanism(s) of action than conventional antimicrobials. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) seems to be a very promising alternative to conventional antimicrobials to be used not only in human medicine, but also in other areas, such as in veterinary medicine, agro-food areas and wastewater treatment [3,4,5,6,7,8].